This covers paragraphs 11-16 (Hey, this is tough sledding! and I haven't had a chance to shake the rust off my Latin since 1981!) of the Apostolic Exhortation. Please read my "introduction" to this effort if you haven't done so already. If there is something that isn't in the text to be translated, but which adds sense, I put it in [brackets]. Sometimes a translated word or phrase needs a little extra help in making itself clearer, so in put any such clarification(s) [italicized in brackets]. I haven't made any comments yet, and I know that I have been VERY nitpicky in the translatin' so that anyone with a better sense of these things than I can piece together something, meaningwise, which might not have been apparent to me.
Figura transit in veritatem
11. Jesus thus
his own radical
to the ancient Hebrew sacrificial meal. For us Christians,
that meal no longer need be repeated repeating that meal is no longer necessary
. As the Church Fathers rightly say, figura transit in veritatem: the foreshadowing has
given way yielded its place
to the truth itself. The ancient rite has been
brought to fulfilment fulfilled
and definitively surpassed by the
loving gift gift of love
of the incarnate Son of God. The food of the
for our sake, dat figuris terminum. (20) By
command to "do this in remembrance of me" (Lk 22:19; 1 Cor 11:25), he asks us to respond compatibly
[i.e. consistently, in a corresponding manner
to his gift and to
make it sacramentally present represent him sacramentally
these words the Lord expresses,
as it were let us say
, his expectation that
Church, born of his sacrifice, will
[i.e. give a home, shelter
] this gift, developing under the guidance of the Holy Spirit the liturgical form of the sacrament. The
of his perfect gift consists not only
in the mere repetition of the Last Supper, but properly
in the Eucharist itself, that is, in the radical newness of Christian worship. In this way, Jesus
left us commissioned us with
the task of
entering into participating in
his "hour." "The Eucharist
into Jesus' act of self-oblation.
More than just statically receiving We do not only receive passively
the incarnate Logos, we
enter into are implicated in
the very dynamic of his self-giving." (21) Jesus "draws us into himself." (22) The substantial conversion of bread and wine into his body and blood introduces within creation the principle of a radical change, a sort of "nuclear fission," to use an image
to us today, which
penetrates to the heart produces in the most intimate [reaches]
being, a change meant to
set off awaken
which transforms for the transformation of
reality, a process
leading ultimately to with the ultimate end being
the transfiguration of the entire world,
to the point the moment
where God will be all
for all (cf. 1 Cor 15:28).
The Holy Spirit and the Eucharist
Jesus and the Holy Spirit
12. With his word and with the
bread and wine, the Lord himself has given us the essential
new worship. The Church, his Bride, is called to celebrate the eucharistic banquet
daily in his memory day after day in his commemoration
. She thus
the redeeming sacrifice of her Bridegroom
a part of human history into the history of men
and makes it sacramentally present in
every culture all cultures
. This great mystery is celebrated in the liturgical forms which the Church, guided by the Holy Spirit, develops
space in diverse places
We need a renewed To this purpose it is necessary to awaken within us an
awareness of the decisive role
played by of
the Holy Spirit in the evolution of the liturgical form and the deepening
of the sacred mysteries. The Paraclete,
Christ's first gift to those who believe the first gift for believers
, (24) already
at work active
in Creation (cf. Gen 1:2), is fully present throughout the life of the incarnate Word: Jesus Christ is conceived by the Virgin Mary by the
of the Holy Spirit (cf. Mt 1:18; Lk 1:35); at the beginning of his public mission, on the banks of the Jordan, he sees the Spirit descend upon him in the form of a dove (cf. Mt 3:16 and parallels); he acts, speaks and rejoices in the Spirit (cf. Lk 10:21), and
he can offer himself in the Spirit through Him he offers himself
(cf. Heb 9:14). In the so-called "farewell discourse"
by John, Jesus
clearly relates establishes a clear relationship between
the gift of his life in the paschal mystery to the gift of the Spirit to his own (cf. Jn 16:7). Once
, bearing in his flesh the signs of the passion, he
can pour out the the Spirit upon them (cf. Jn 20:22), making them sharers imparts the the Spirit (cf. Jn 20:22), making his [people, disciples, followers] participants
in his own mission (cf. Jn 20:21) The Spirit would then teach the disciples all things and
bring to their remembrance remind them of
all that Christ had said (cf. Jn 14:26), since it
to him, as the Spirit of truth (cf. Jn 15:26), to guide the disciples into
truth (cf. Jn 16:13). In the account in Acts, the Spirit descends on the Apostles gathered in prayer with Mary on the day of Pentecost (cf. 2:1-4) and
them to undertake the mission of proclaiming the Good News to all peoples.
Thus it is through the working of the Spirit that Christ himself continues to be Therefore Christ himself by virtue of the action[s] of the Holy Spirit is
present and active in his Church,
starting with from
her vital centre which is the Eucharist.
The Holy Spirit and the eucharistic celebration
understand the decisive role
played by of
the Holy Spirit in the eucharistic celebration, particularly with regard to transubstantiation.
An awareness of this is clearly evident in All this has been well documented by
the Fathers of the Church. Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, in his Catecheses, states that we "call upon God in his mercy to send his Holy Spirit upon the offerings before us, to transform the bread into the body of Christ and the wine into the blood of Christ. Whatever the Holy Spirit touches is sanctified and completely transformed" (25). Saint John Chrysostom too notes that the priest invokes the Holy Spirit when he celebrates the sacrifice: (26) like Elijah, the minister calls down the Holy Spirit so that "as grace comes down upon the victim, the souls of all are thereby inflamed" (27).
The spiritual life of the faithful can benefit greatly from a better appreciation It is very
[i.e., vitally, crucially
] necessary for the spiritual life of the faithful to be fully conscious
of the richness of the anaphora:
along joined together
with the words spoken by Christ at the Last Supper, it contains the epiclesis, the petition to the Father to
send down make descend
the gift of the Spirit
so to the ends
that the bread and the wine will become the body and blood of Jesus Christ and that "the community as a whole will become ever more the body of Christ" (28). The Spirit, which is
invoked by the celebrant upon the gifts of bread and wine placed on the altar is the same
who gathers the faithful "into one body" and makes of them a spiritual offering pleasing to the Father (29).
The Eucharist and the Church
The Eucharist, causal
of the Church
the sacrament of the Eucharist Jesus
the faithful into his "hour;" in this manner
he shows us the
that he willed to establish between himself and us, between his
person and the Church.
Indeed In effect
, in the sacrifice of the Cross, Christ
gave birth to begets
the Church as his Bride and his body. The Fathers of the Church often meditated on the relationship between Eve's
coming forth origins
from the side of Adam as he slept (cf. Gen 2:21-23) and the coming forth of the new Eve, the Church, from the open side of Christ sleeping in death: from Christ's pierced side, John recounts, there came forth blood and water (cf. Jn 19:34), the symbol of the sacraments (30).
A contemplative gaze Contemplating
[i.e., pondering, looking upon meditatively
] "upon him whom they have pierced" (Jn 19:37) leads us to
reflect on consider
the causal connection between Christ's sacrifice, the Eucharist and the Church. The Church "draws her life from the Eucharist" (31).
Since the Eucharist Given that it
makes present Christ's redeeming sacrifice, we must
start by acknowledging recognize
) that "there is a causal influence of the Eucharist at the Church's very origins" (32). The Eucharist is Christ who gives himself to us and continually builds us up as his body.
Hence, in the striking interplay between the Eucharist which builds up the Church, and the Church herself which "makes" the Eucharist The Eucharist is who gives himself to us, edifying us continually as his body. Therefore in the correlative [i.e. symbiotic] relationship between the Eucharist which builds the Church and the Church that makes (i.e. confects) the Eucharist
the primary causality is expressed in the first formula> the first affirmation expresses the primary cause:
the Church is able to celebrate and adore the mystery of Christ present in the Eucharist precisely because this very
Christ first gave himself
her in the sacrifice of the Cross. The Church's ability to "make" the Eucharist
is completely rooted inhas as its root
donation [i.e. selfgiving
] to her. Here we can see more clearly the meaning of Saint John's words: "he first loved us" (1 Jn 4:19). We too, at every celebration of the Eucharist, confess the primacy of Christ's gift. The causal influence of the Eucharist at the Church's origins definitively discloses both the chronological and ontological priority of the fact that it was Christ who loved us "first."
For all eternity he remains the one who It is he who eternally
loves us first.
The Eucharist and ecclesial communion
15. The Eucharist is thus constitutive of the Church's being and
. This is why Christian antiquity used the same words, Corpus Christi, to designate Christ's body born of the Virgin Mary, his eucharistic body and his ecclesial body.(34) This
clear datum fact of the verily present in
us to appreciate augment within us a consciousness
[i.e., a conscious knowledge, a full awareness
the inseparability of Christ and the Church. The Lord Jesus, by offering himself in sacrifice for us,
in his gift effectively pointed to through his gift announced in an efficacious
[i.e., complete, thorough, having a proper effect
the mystery of the Church. It is significant that the Second Eucharistic Prayer, invoking the Paraclete, formulates its prayer for the unity of the Church as follows: "may all of us who share in the body and blood of Christ be brought together in unity by the Holy Spirit."
These words help This passage permits
see clearly understand clearly
how the res of the sacrament of the Eucharist
the unity of the faithful
ecclesial communion. The Eucharist is thus found at the roots
of the Church as a mystery of communion (35).
relationship between Eucharist and communio had already been
pointed out called to our attention
by the Servant of God John Paul II in his Encyclical Ecclesia de Eucharistia. He
spoke of made reference to
the memorial of Christ as "the supreme sacramental manifestation of communion in the Church" (36). The unity of ecclesial communion is concretely
in the Christian communities and is renewed
at the celebration of the Eucharist in the Eucharistic act
, which unites them and differentiates them
in the into
particular Churches, "in quibus et ex quibus una et unica Ecclesia catholica exsistit" (37).
The fact that Precisely because of the reality of
the one Eucharist which
is celebrated in each Diocese around its own Bishop
us to see how those particular Churches subsist in and ex Ecclesia.
. In effect
, "the oneness and indivisibility of the eucharistic body of the Lord
[i.e., establishes the fact, makes clear
] the oneness of his mystical body, which is the one and indivisible Church. From the eucharistic centre arises the necessary openness of every celebrating community, of every particular Church
. By allowing: to allow
itself to be drawn into the open arms of the Lord, it
achieves continues the
insertion into his one and undivided body." (38) Consequently, in the celebration of the Eucharist, the individual
members of the
faithful find themselves in their Church, that is, in the Church of Christ.
this eucharistic perspective,
[i.e., properly, correctly
] understood, ecclesial communion is
to be catholic by its very nature (39).
An emphasis on Underscoring
this eucharistic basis of ecclesial communion can also contribute
[i.e., having proper
effect] to the ecumenical dialogue with the Churches and Ecclesial Communities which are not in full communion with the See of Peter. The Eucharist objectively
a powerful bond of unity between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Churches, which have preserved the authentic and integral nature of the eucharistic mystery. At the same time,
emphasis on the [bold] relief given to
the ecclesial character of the Eucharist can become an important element of the dialogue with the Communities born
of the Reformed tradition (40).
The Eucharist and the Sacraments
The sacramentality of the Church
16. The Second Vatican Council
recalled commemorates [i.e., reminds us] that "all the other sacraments, and indeed as well as all ecclesiastical ministries and works of the apostolate, are bound up united with the Eucharist and are directed towards ordered [i.e. ordained] by it. For in the most blessed The Holy Eucharist is contained the entire spiritual wealth contains all the assets [i.e., goods, property] of the Church, namely Christ himself our Pasch Passover and our living bread, who gives life to humanity through his flesh – that flesh which is given life and gives life by the Holy Spirit whose flesh is living and gives life to men by the Holy Spirit. Thus men and women are invited and led taken to offer themselves, their works and all creation in union things created with Christ him." (41) This close intimate relationship of the Eucharist with the other sacraments and the Christian life existence can be most fully understood is understood to its depth [i.e., root, core] when we contemplate the mystery of the Church herself as a sacrament. (42) To this end, the Second Vatican Council in this regard stated that "the Church, is in Christ, is a sacrament or a sign and instrument – of communion the intimate union with God and of the unity of the entire human race humankind." (43) To quote Saint Cyprian, as "a people made one by the unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit," (44) she is the sacrament of trinitarian communion.
that the Church is the "universal sacrament of salvation" (45) shows how the sacramental "economy" ultimately definitively determines the way that Christ, the one only Saviour, through the Spirit, reaches our lives existence in all their particularity propriatery [i.e., individual, particular, specific] conditions. The Church herself receives and at the same time expresses herself what she herself is in the seven sacraments, thanks to by which God's grace concretely influences the lives of the faithful, so that their whole existence life, redeemed by Christ, can become an act of worship pleasing acceptable to God. From this perspective, I would like here to draw attention to some underscore certain elements brought up signaled [i.e., indicated, "flagged"] by the Synod Fathers which may help us to grasp might be helpful in comprehending the relationship of each of the sacraments to the eucharistic mystery.