Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam

Essential thinking for reading Catholics.

Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Evangelii Gaudium or "I CAN'T believe I'm doing this again."

"STICKY NOTE" For those of you visiting for the first time (Hi!) I want to stress and emphasize -- before you begin scrolling down and reading, and there IS a lot to scroll and read -- these crucial points, briefly:
1- The Pope's message has been very significantly altered by a calamitous English (and ONLY the English) translation.
2- That mistranslation, for a number of reasons, seems to be, at least to me, unquestionably deliberate.
3- There is a design, in my opinion, to this deliberate mistranslation and that is to provide papal "air cover" to left-of-center policies and politicians.
4- This is not the first time (by far) where the English AND ONLY THE ENGLISH translation has had such a and I am hardly the first to notice this.
5- My personal style of translation really shies away from "dynamic equivalency" unless a particular passage has no accurate rendering in the (in this case) English. Call it 20% of this translation.
6- Sometimes upon rereading what I have already translated, I catch an error or realize a better way of wording something, so sometimes previous "entries" change. If you've wondered, you're not seeing things.
7- My goal for an improved translation is not to "show" that Pope Francis is really the second coming of Ayn Rand, rather, it's to show what he is not saying. I am adamant that this is not a case of explaining away "what the Pope meant to say..." but, rather, what he DID say and for inadequately explored reasons has been rendered incorrectly.

UPDATE 11 1/21/14, 12:00pm The newest stuff, as usual, is in RED. I've had some interesting moments with people from Crisis Magazine and other more MSM outlets. The nice lady from Crisis was even more livid than I am, which was refreshing. She noted -- correctly, in my estimation -- that many of "our" side suffer from the problem of being unwilling/unable to read anything other than what the MSM portrays the Pope as having said and taking such representations as irrefutably true. Alas, many simply will NOT see what they don't want to see, having formed the lamentable opinion they have.

Someone who REALLY gets it is Fr. Robert Sirico, of the Acton Institute.

UPDATE 10 1/7/14, 8:00am Welcome to those readers coming from Breitbart, to which I am grateful for the time spent discussing these matters. I took a hiatus due to a long business trip followed by Christmas break. Back at it now.

I want to highlight and underscore one thing I said in that interview:

And it's not just about economics.

If Francis is portrayed as a liberal who rejects Church dogma--which Time magazine originally claimed in its Man of the Year story, until it didn't--the left wins. Better yet is if that spin yields praise from those who normally are foes of the Church.

Says Garcia, "The people whose following of Pope Francis is strictly through the mainstream media -- as conservative as they may be -- they hate it that people with whom we vehemently disagree on many important issues are speaking charitably of the pope." He adds, "If NARAL is speaking kindly of Pope Francis, obviously the guy has to have horns and a pitchfork."

By this I mean that we're allowing other people's reactions whether these reactions are warranted or not, to drive our understanding of this situation. By doing so we yield control of the narrative, ceding the strategic high ground, as it were. It, sadly, doesn't matter what the Pope says...those on the left seize whatever shred they wish to -- even imaginary ones --  and then do a victory lap, which drives many on our side (usually those people whose ONLY knowledge of what the Pope says/does comes from a news media with its own agenda) sputteringly livid.

I'll explain what I mean via a confessional analogy. I used to cheat at Pictionary. I never really liked playing it, but the rest of my friends loved it and I'd get roped into playing. So, to wrap up quickly, I'd cheat.
This is the way I used to cheat at Pictionary.

I'd start doodling and my teammate would start yelling guesses and, no matter what he'd yell, I'd burst out with the answer: "YES!!!! Marmot! We rule!!!!!"

In the din of the other team's chatter, nobody EVER noticed.

This is how progressives are treating Francis. He says "X, sometimes Y, but not Z, although we must pray for people who like Z."

And the progressives all start screaming "Z! At last! A pope who isn't a caveman!" and they start doing the Snoopy Happy Dance. And some of our merry band see the Snoopy Happy Dance and go bat$#!+ crazy. (And the progressives KNOW that what they're doing drives some of us to have to explain what's going on and drives others bat$#!+ crazy, and they bloody well lo-o-o-o-o-ove that.

Sun Tzu would be having a conniption at this way of interpreting things.

UPDATE 9 12/7/13, 10:00am Welcome to those readers coming from, to which I am indebted for their kind words. I'd like to take this brief opportunity to state that while I believe the mistranslation is deliberate, a) I have no smoking gun to that effect and until such a time as that, I'll just say that is my own opinion and for readers to please read and think and arrive at their own conclusions, and b) deliberate does not necessarily equate to malicious.

UPDATE 8 12/5/13, 10:30pm New sections in RED.

UPDATE 7 12/5/13, 12:50am I detoured slightly today, by working on a long(ish) analysis of the "economic" sections of Evangelii Gaudium, properly translated for some journalist-types. Of course.

UPDATE 7 12/4/13, 4:30pm Yes, yes, yes. There is a LOT of scrolling. This is a TWO HUNDRED AND TWENTY FOUR page translation I'm taking on.

UPDATE 6 12/4/13, 4:00pm This is PRECISELY why the Apostolic Exhortation was willfully mistranslated, to give Certain Types of Politician very desirable "papal cover" and this is happening completely by design and, sadly, it's going according to plan.

UPDATE 5 12/4/13, 3:00pm: Filling in the translation, in dribs and drabs. In one sense, it's a bit disappointing that all people want to discuss is what Pope Francis said about the economy. Still, I press on. When I add a new section, since the latest additions won't be at the end, I'll put the new things in red for easy spotting.

UPDATE 4 12/2/13, 8:00pm: I've been asked -- seems like I'm taking requests now --to translate the "Islamic" paragraphs (#252 & 253). These, even when translated to more closely hew to the original, don't quite read as pointedly in English as they do in Spanish. FYI.

UPDATE 3 12/1/13, 1:05am: What a difference a day makes. Especially a day -- just concluded, thanks for asking -- of Family Reunionish activity of the nonstop variety. (Which is why no updatedness spouted forth on Saturday. Sorry.) In my absence, an article making reference to this very blog post appeared on Breitbart -- more on which anon -- and, well, my little circle of readers swelled by a teensy order of magnitude or two.

So welcome Breitbartists. As I develop this and the companion post, you'll see more of what I meant in the quotes quoted (ahem) in the piece.

The dark side of a tsunami of new readers is that several of them assume that, because I favor a freewheeling freedom of expression, I practice such a thing when people begin to comment, frankly, stuff that is either willfully ignorant or in sharp contradistinction to reality. So, I purged and locked up the combox. Sorry, kids. Next time talk to those who won't play nice.

UPDATE 2 11/29/13, 7:45pm: I have completed the second part of the "economics" section (#202-#209) as this subject matter seems to have been the source of the greatest controversy.

I will offer my analysis of what the Pope REALLY said, and what it really means in a separate post, as I don't want to "commingle" my translation with my analysis.

UPDATE 11/28/13, 10:45pm: I have been asked by a certain number of for-real journalists (!) if I could, pretty please, skip ahead a bit and provide my version of the "economic paragraphs" of this Apostolic Exhortation a bit sooner than would be the case were I to proceed in numerical order as I have done until now. So I will oblige them, as I realize that countering the, er, incorrect perceptions sooner rather than later is of desperate importance. I'll do that next.

Which brings me to a rather delicate point.

The vast majority of my readers have no idea who I am. "This could be some lunatic on Babelfish!" or "This idiot went to Chipotle twice in one week and now he thinks he's Cervantes." are all thoughts you could, quite legitimately, have. You might read of someone who takes exception to my interpretation, maybe even read of a vast horde of them. I can swear or affirm that I am a native Spanish speaker with equivalent native fluency in English and who has to, for professional reasons, translate reports, memoranda, etc. on a daily basis.

And you are not even remotely required to believe a bloody syllable of it.

Which is why I am not asking you to take my, uh, word for it. The original Spanish (and Fr. Federico Lombardi, SJ admitted the Holy Father composed this in Spanish) can be found for your reference here. While you may not be able to understand Word One of Spanish, I'm sure you can spot if a whole phrase or sentence has, for no apparent reason, been excised from the English (and only the English) translation. Furthermore, I have overlaid my changes on the original text of the English translation. This way, if you are so inclined you may check online or with a suitable dictionary, whether "inumerables" is best rendered as "a thousand" or "innumerable."

Some of the mistranslations, like the example above, are perplexingly silly, capricious changes in wording but which don't really affect much. Some, on the other hand, are subtle and while not changing the strict definition of a passage give it a Then of course, we have the outrageous stuff...missing phrases, clauses and sentences...outright, wholesale changes in wording that have the unhappy consequences we have seen. But that my efforts at correcting the big things may have maximum validity (whatever THAT is) I have to correct the little things too. Which, given my dual-index typing skills, takes some time.
I have been asked, VERY NICELY, by people for whom I deeply care, to offer my translation of the Apostolic Exhortation in English. So, in a triumph of hope over experience, here I go. As usual, whatever I think is worded incorrectly will be in strikeout, my replacement wording in bold and anything not in the original but which I believe helps explain it better will be in [brackets]. I'll "sign" (also in [brackets] such as a literal rendering which has no meaningful equivalent in English) whatever I think merits commentary or explanation. The translation is rendered with British spelling, so I'm not touching that but, naturally, I'll type with American spelling.

We're allies after all.

To show you how sloppy (at times it's MERELY sloppy) the translation is, the Table of Contents took me an hour. (Partly due to my choice of formatting what I consider the errors and corrections, which takes time.) This may be slow going (there are 288 paragraphs to translate and I have only gotten as far as the last one I've posted) and I also often go over my own efforts to catch anything I may not have done properly or caught the first time, so check back often, please. In other words, if you still see this sentence, come back later, as I'm not done. I realize that timeliness is important, and I am striving to achieve that, but not at the expense of accuracy....that's how we got into this mess.

Here ya go:


Eternal newness [11-13]


The scope [proposal, i.e., “thesis”]and limits of this Exhortation [16-18]



Taking the first step Initiating, being involved and supportive, bearing fruit and rejoicing [24]


An ecclesial renewal which cannot be deferred [27-33]






No to an economy of exclusion [53-54]
No to the new idolatry of money
No to a financial system which rules rather than serves
money that governs instead of serving [57-58]
No to the inequality which spawns generates violence
Some cultural challenges
Challenges to inculturating the faith
Challenges from urban cultures


Yes to the challenge of a missionary spirituality [78-80]
No to selfishness and spiritual egotistical sloth
No to a sterile pessimism
Yes to the new relationships brought generated by Christ
No to spiritual worldliness
No to warring among ourselves
Other ecclesial challenges



A people for everyone [112-114]
A people of many faces

We are all missionary disciples
The evangelizing power of popular piety
Person to person
Charisms at the service of a communion which evangelizes

Culture, thought and education

II. THE HOMILY [135-144]

The liturgical context [137-138]
A mother’s conversation
Words which set hearts on fire


Reverence for Worshipping in truth [146-148]
Personalizing the word
Spiritual reading
An ear to the people
Homiletic resources


Kerygmatic and mystagogical catechesis [163-168]
Personal accompaniment in processes of growth
Centred on Turning towards the word of God



Confession of faith and commitment to society social compact [178-179]
The kingdom and its challenge
which makes demands of us [literally “has claims on us”] [180-181]

The Church’s teaching on social questions


In union with God, we hear a plea clamor [187-192]
Fidelity to the Gospel, lest we run in vain
The special privileged place of the poor in among God’s people
The economy and the distribution of income
Concern for the vulnerable


Time is greater than space [222-225]
Unity prevails over conflict
Realities are more important than ideas
The whole is greater than the part


Dialogue between faith, reason and science [242-243]
Ecumenical dialogue
Relations with Judaism
Interreligious dialogue
Social dialogue in a context of religious freedom



Personal encounter with the saving love of Jesus who saves us [264-267]
The spiritual savour pleasure of being a one people
The mysterious working of the risen Christ and his Spirit
The missionary power of intercessory prayer


Jesus’ gift to his people [285-286]
Star of the new evangelization


1. THE JOY OF THE GOSPEL fills the hearts and the whole lives of all who encounter Jesus. Those who accept his offer of salvation allow themselves to be saved by Him are set free from sin, sorrow, inner emptiness and loneliness isolation. With Jesus Christ joy is constantly forever born anew. In this Exhortation I wish to encourage address the Christian faithful to embark upon a new chapter phase of evangelization marked by this joy, while pointing out new paths for the Church’s journey march in the next [few] years to come.


2. The great danger in today’s world, pervaded as it is by with its multiple and overwhelming [literally, “burdensome”] temptation [literally, “offers”] to consume, is the desolation and anguish born of an individualistic sadness stemming from a complacent yet covetous heart, the feverish pursuit of frivolous pleasures, and a blunted an isolated conscience. Whenever our interior life becomes caught up in closed off due to its own interests and concerns, there is no longer room for others, no place for the poor, God’s voice is no longer heard, the quiet sweet joy of his love is no longer felt, and the desire to do good fades enthusiasm for doing good no longer beats [within]. This is a very real danger for believers too. Many fall prey to it, and end up resentful, angry complaining and listless lifeless. That is no way to live a not an option for a dignified and fulfilled life; it is not God’s will desire for us, nor is it the life in the Spirit which has its source in comes forth from the heart of the risen resurrected Christ.

3. I invite all every Christians, everywhere, at this very moment, to a renewed renew his personal encounter with Jesus Christ, or at least an openness to letting him encounter them decide to allow himself to be encountered by Him; I ask all of you to do this unfailingly try this, without rest, each day. No one should think that this invitation is not meant for him or her, since “no one is excluded from the joy brought by the Lord.” The Lord does not disappoint defraud those who take this risk; whenever we someone takes a normal step towards Jesus, we come to realize that he is already there, waiting for us with open arms. Now is the time to say to Jesus: “Lord, I have let myself be deceived; in a thousand ways I have shunned sought to escape your love, yet here I am once more, to renew my covenant with you. I need you. Save me once again, Lord, take me once more into your redeeming embrace arms.” How good it feels is for us to come back to him whenever we are lost! Let me say this I insist [on saying this] once more: God never tires of forgiving us; we are the ones who tire of seeking his mercy. Christ, who told us to forgive one another “seventy times seven” (Mt 18:22) has given us his example: he has forgiven us seventy times seven. Time and time again he bears us on his shoulders. No one can strip us of the dignity bestowed upon us by this boundless and unfailing infinite and unbreakable love. With a tenderness which never disappoints, but is always capable of restoring our joy, he makes it possible for us to lift up our heads and to start anew. Let us not flee from the resurrection of Jesus, let us never give up not declare ourselves dead, come what will. May nothing inspire more than his life, which impels us onwards!

4. The books of the Old Testament predicted had pre-announced that the joy of salvation would abound overflow in messianic times. The prophet Isaiah exultantly salutes the awaited Messiah: “You have multiplied the nation, you have increased its joy.” [The Scripture passage is rendered a bit differently in English, but I left it alone. -J.] (9:3) He exhorts those who dwell on Zion to go forth to meet him with song: “Shout aloud and sing for joy!” (12:6). The prophet tells those who have already seen him from afar to bring the message to others: “Get you up to a high mountain, O herald of good tidings to Zion; lift up your voice with strength, O herald of good tidings to Jerusalem” (40:9). All creation shares in the joy of salvation: “Sing for joy, O heavens, and exult, O earth! Break forth, O mountains, into singing! For the Lord has comforted his people, and will have compassion on his suffering ones” (49:13).

Zechariah, looking to the day of the Lord, invites the people to acclaim the king who comes “humble and riding on a donkey”: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter Jerusalem! Lo, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he” (9:9).

Perhaps the most exciting infectious [literally “contagious”] invitation is that of the prophet Zephaniah, who presents God as a luminous center of celebration and joy amidst with his people in the midst of a celebration overflowing with the to whom He wants to communicate this joy of salvation. I find it thrilling It enlivens me to reread this text: “The Lord, your God is in your midst, a warrior who gives you the victory; he will rejoice over you with gladness, he will renew you in his love; he will exult over you with loud singing, as on a day of festival” (3:17).
This is the joy which we experience daily, amid the little things of everyday life, as a response to the loving invitation of God our Father: “My child, treat yourself well, according to your means… Do not deprive yourself of the day’s enjoyment” (Sir 14:11, 14). What tender, paternal love echoes can we discern in these words!

5. The Gospel, radiant with the glory of where the glorious cross of Christ’s cross blinds us with [its] radiance, constantly insistently invites us to rejoice. A few examples will suffice. “Rejoice!” is the angel’s greeting to Mary (Lk 1:28). Mary’s visit to Elizabeth makes John leap for joy in his mother’s womb (cf. Lk 1:41). In her song of praise, Mary proclaims: “My spirit rejoices in God my Saviour” (Lk 1:47). When Jesus begins his ministry, John cries out: “For this reason, my joy has been fulfilled” (Jn 3:29). Jesus himself “rejoiced in the Holy Spirit” (Lk 10:21). His message brings us joy: “I have said these things to you, so that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be complete” (Jn 15:11). Our Christian joy drinks of the wellspring [that is] his brimming overflowing heart. He promises his disciples: “You will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will turn into joy” (Jn 16:20). He then goes on to say: “But I will see you again and your hearts will rejoice, and no one will take your joy from you” (Jn 16:22). The disciples “rejoiced” (Jn 20:20) at the sight of the risen Christ. In the Acts of the Apostles we read that the first Christians “ate their food with glad and generous hearts” (2:46). Wherever the disciples went, “there was great joy” (8:8); even amid persecution they continued to be “filled with joy” (13:52). The newly baptized eunuch “went on his way rejoicing” (8:39), while Paul’s jailer “and his entire household rejoiced that he had become a believer in God” (16:34). Why should we not also enter into this great stream river of joy?

6. There are Christians who opt [for living life] whose lives seem like [that of a] Lent without Easter. I realize of course that joy is not expressed the same way at all times in all phases and circumstances of life, especially at moments of great difficulty [which are] often very harsh. Joy adapts and changes, but it always endures, even at a minimum as a flicker of light born of our personal certainty that, when everything is said and done, we are infinitely loved beyond all [things]. I understand the grief of people who that people are disposed [literally “tend”] to sadness because they have to endure great suffering, yet slowly but surely little by little we all have to let one must allow the joy of faith slowly revive to begin awakening as a quiet secret yet firm trust confidence, even amid the greatest distress anguish: “My soul is bereft of peace; I have forgotten what happiness is… But this I call to mind, and therefore I have hope: the steadfast love of the Lord never ceases, his mercies never come to an end; they are new every morning. Great is your faithfulness… It is good that one should wait quietly for the salvation of the Lord” (Lam 3:17, 21-23, 26).

7. Sometimes we are tempted to find excuses and complain, Temptation often appears under the guise [literally “the form”] of excuses and complaints acting as if we could only be happy happiness were only possible if a thousand innumerable conditions were met. To some extent this is because our “technological society has succeeded in multiplying achieved the multiplication of occasions of pleasure, yet has found it very difficult to engender joy.” I can say that the most beautiful and natural spontaneous expressions of joy which I have seen in my years of life were in those from poor people who had little to hold on to. I also think of remember the real joy shown by others who, even amid pressing professional obligations commitments, were able knew how to preserve, in detachment and simplicity, a heart full of faith a faithful heart, detached and simple. In their own way varying forms [literally “manners”], all these instances of joy flow this joy drinks from the infinite ever-greater love of God, who has revealed himself to us in Jesus Christ. I will never tire of repeating those words of Benedict XVI which take us to the very heart of the Gospel: “Being One does not begin to become a Christian is not as the result of an ethical choice or a lofty idea, but the encounter with an event, a person, which gives life a new horizon and, with that, a decisive direction orientation [This is meant in the sense of “bearings”].”

8. Thanks solely to this encounter – or renewed encounter re-encounter – with God’s love, which blossoms into an enriching becomes a happy friendship, we are liberated from our narrowness isolated conscience and self-absorption insularity [literally, “self-referencing”]. We become fully human when we become are more than human, when we let allow God to bring us beyond ourselves in order to attain the fullest truth of our being reach our truest selves. Here we find the source and inspiration of all our efforts at evangelization is the wellspring of all evangelizing action. For if we have received welcomed the love which restores meaning sense to our lives, how can we fail contain the desire to share that love with others?


9. Goodness That which is good always tends to spread be communicated. Every authentic experience of truth and goodness beauty on its own seeks by its very nature to grow within us, and any person who has experienced a lives with profound liberation becomes more sensitive develops a greater sensitivity to the needs of others. As it expands what is good is communicated, goodness it takes root and develops. If we wish to lead a dignified and fulfilling life of dignity and fullness, we have to reach out to no other path before us but to be aware of [literally “recognize”] others and seek their good. In this sense, several We should not [therefore] be surprised by the sayings of Saint Paul will not surprise us: “The love of Christ urges us on” (2 Cor 5:14); “Woe to me if I do not proclaim the Gospel” (1 Cor 9:16).

10. The Gospel offers us the chance proposition is [then] to live life on a higher plane, but with no less intensity: “Life grows by being given away, and it weakens in isolation and comfort. Indeed, those who enjoy life most are those who leave security on the shore and become excited by the mission of communicating life to others”. When the Church issues a summons to take up the task of evangelization, she is simply pointing to the source of authentic personal fulfilment only indicating to Christians the true dynamism of personal realization: . For “here we discover a profound law of reality: that life is attained and matures in the measure that it is offered up in order to give life to others. This is certainly what mission means, definitively, what the mission is.” Consequently, an evangelizer must never look like someone who has just come back from a funeral have a funereal expression! [Literally “funeral-face”] Let us recover and deepen our enthusiasm grow in fervor, that “delightful sweet and comforting joy of evangelizing, even when it is in amid tears that we must sow… And may the world of our time, -- which is searching, sometimes with anguish, sometimes with hope, -- be enabled to receive the good news not from evangelizers who are dejected sad, discouraged, impatient or anxious, but from ministers of the Gospel whose lives glow with radiate the fervour, of those who have first of all received the joy of Christ in themselves.

Eternal newness [The word in Spanish, “novedad” has no exact counterpart in English; it means novelty/news/innovation. “Newness” isn’t quite correct but it’s no more incorrect than anything else I can think of.]

11. A renewal of preaching can offer the believers, as well as the lukewarm and the non-practising, new joy in the faith and an evangelizing fruitfulness in the work of evangelization. The heart of its message will In truth the center [i.e. “core”] and essence is always be the same: the God who revealed his immense love in the crucified and risen Christ. God constantly renews his ones His faithful are always new, whatever their age even if they are old: “They shall mount up with wings like eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not be faint” (Is 40:31). Christ is the “eternal Gospel” (Rev 14:6); he “is the same yesterday and today and forever” (Heb 13:8), yet his riches and beauty are inexhaustible. He is for ever always young and a constant source of newness. The Church never fails to be amazed at “the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God” (Rom 11:33). Saint John of the Cross says that “the thicket of God’s wisdom and knowledge is so deep and so broad that the soul, however much it has come to know of it, can always penetrate deeper within it”. Or as Saint Irenaeus writes: “By his coming, Christ brought with him all newness”. With this freshness he is always able to He always can, with His newness, renew our lives and our communities community, and even if when it the Christian message has known traverses periods of darkness and ecclesial weakness, it the Christian proposition will never grow old age. Jesus Christ can also break through the dull categories [literally, “schemes”] with which we would enclose him and he constantly amazes surprises us by his divine creativity. Whenever we make the effort to return to the source and to recover the original freshness of the Gospel, new avenues arise ways, new paths of creativity open up, with different means, new forms of expression, more eloquent signs and words with new renewed meaning for today’s world [all] blossom. Every form of authentic evangelization is always “new.”

12. Though it is true that correct for this mission to demands great generosity generous [self] giving on our part, it would be wrong to see it understand this as a heroic individual undertaking personal task, for it is first and foremost above all the Lord’s work, surpassing anything beyond that which we can see discover and understand. Jesus is “the first and greatest evangelizer.” In every activity any form of evangelization, the primacy always belongs to is God’s, who has called us to cooperate wished to call us into cooperation with him and who leads us on and impel us by the power of his Spirit. The real newness is the newness which God himself mysteriously brings about wishes to produce, and that He inspires, that He provokes, that He guides gives direction to [literally, “orients”] and accompanies in a thousand ways. The In all of the life of the Church it should always reveal be clearly manifested that God’s is takes the initiative, that “he has loved us first” (1 Jn 4:19) and that he alone “gives the growth” (1 Cor 3:7). This conviction enables us to maintain preserve a spirit of [our] joy in the midst of a task so demanding and challenging that it engages takes our entire life. God asks everything of us, yet at the same time he offers everything to us.

13. Nor should we see understand the newness of this mission as entailing a kind of displacement a dislocation, as a forgotten artifact [literally, “a forgottenness”] or forgetfulness of the living history which surrounds welcomes us and carries launches us forward. Memory is a dimension of our faith which we might could call “deuteronomic,” not unlike analogous to the memory of Israel itself. Jesus leaves us the Eucharist as the Church’s daily everyday remembrance of, and deeper sharing in, the event of his Passover our deepening in [His] Easter. (cf. Lk 22:19). The joy of evangelizing An evangelizing joy always arises from glows against the backdrop of grateful remembrance: it is a grace for which we constantly need to implore ask. The apostles never forgot the moment when Jesus touched their hearts: “It was about four o’clock in the afternoon.” (Jn 1:39) Together with Jesus, this remembrance makes present to us “a great cloud of witnesses” (Heb 12:1), some of whom, as believers, we recall with great joy Among these are some who are highlighted [for each of us] because of the special way in which they helped blossom our joyful faith: “Remember your leaders, those who spoke to you the word of God” (Heb 13:7). Sometimes of them were these are ordinary simple people who were, close to us and who introduced us to life of in the faith: “I am reminded of your sincere faith, a faith that dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice” (2 Tim 1:5). The believer is essentially “one who remembers” fundamentally someone of “memory” [literally, “memorious”].


14. Attentive to the promptings of In listening to the Holy Spirit, who helps us together to read recognize the signs of the times in community, the XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops gathered from 7-28 October 2012 to discuss the theme: The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith. The Synod reaffirmed recorded that the new evangelization is a summons addressed call to all and that it is carried out in three principal settings. In first place, we can mention the area of ordinary pastoral ministry, which is “animated by the fire of the Spirit, so as to inflame the hearts of the faithful who regularly take part in community worship and gather on the Lord’s day to be nourished by his word and by the bread of eternal life.” In this category we can also include those members of faithful who preserve a deep and sincere an intense and Catholic faith, expressing it in different ways a diversity of manners, but seldom taking part in even if they don’t always [literally, “frequently”] participate in worship. Ordinary pastoral ministry seeks to help believers to grow spiritually so that they can respond, in constant improvement [literally, “each time better”] and with their whole lives to God’s love ever more fully in their lives.

A second area In second place, is that the category of “the baptized whose lives do not reflect who do not live in accord with the demands of Baptism,” who lack a meaningful relationship cordial belongingness to the Church and no longer experience the consolation born of the faith. The Church, in her maternal concern like an attentive mother, tries to help them experience makes a committed effort for them to live [out] a conversion which will restore to them the joy of faith to their hearts and inspire a commitment and a desire to be committed to the Gospel.

Lastly, we cannot forget that let us emphasize that evangelization is first and foremost about essentially preaching the Gospel to those who do not know Jesus Christ or who have always rejected him. Many of these are quietly secretly seeking God, led moved by a yearning to see his face, even in countries of ancient Christian tradition. All of them have a right to receive the Gospel. Christians have the duty to proclaim the Gospel without excluding anyone. Instead of seeming, not to impose any new obligations, they should appear as people but as those who wish to share their joy, who point to a horizon of beauty and who invite others to offer a delicious banquet. It is not by proselytizing that the Church grows, but “by attraction.”
15. John Paul II asked invited us to recognize that “there must be no lessening of we must keep alive the impetus to preach the Gospel” to those who are far from Christ, “because this is the first prime task of the Church.” Indeed, “today missionary activity still represents the greatest challenge for the Church” and “the missionary task must remain foremost in first place.” What would happen if we were to take truly took these words seriously? We would realize that missionary outreach is paradigmatic for all the Church’s activity works. Along these lines the Latin American bishops stated that we “cannot passively and calmly wait in our church buildings temples;” we need to move evolve [literally, “pass”] “from a pastoral ministry of mere conservation to a decidedly missionary pastoral ministry.” This task continues to be a the source of immense the greatest joys for the Church: “Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.” (Lk 15:7)

The scope purpose [i.e. “thesis”] and limits of this Exhortation

16. I was happy to take up accepted with pleasure the request of the Fathers of the Synod to write this Exhortation. In so doing, I am reaping the rich fruits of riches from the Synod’s labours works. In addition, I have sought advice from a number of people and I intend am making sure to express my own the concerns about which move me, at this particular chapter of specific moment in the Church’s work of evangelization. Countless are the issues involving related to evangelization in today’s world which could be developed [further] might be discussed here, but I have chosen not to explore decline [literally, “renounce”] discussing in detail these many questions which call for further reflection and should be the subject of study and deeper meditation [literally, “a deepeningness”]. Nor do I also do not believe that the papal magisterium should be expected to offer a definitive or complete word on every question which affects the Church and the world. It is not advisable for the Pope to take the place of the local Bishops episcopate in the discernment of every problematic issue which arises in their territory. In this sense, I am conscious of the need to promote a sound healthy “decentralization.”

17. Here I have chosen to present some guidelines propose some lines [of thought] which can might encourage and guide the whole Church in a new phase of evangelization, one marked by enthusiasm and vitality filled with fervor and dynamism. In this context Within this framework [literally, “inside this frame”], and on the basis of the teaching of the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, I have decided, among other themes, to discuss at length the following questions:

a) the reform of the Church in her missionary outreach;
b) the temptations faced by pastoral workers agents;
c) the Church to be understood as the entire People of God which evangelizes;
d) the homily and its preparation;
e) the social inclusion of the poor in society;
f) peace and social dialogue within society;
g) the spiritual motivations for missionary tasks.

18. I have dealt extensively with these topics I extended myself on these themes, with a detail level of development which some may find excessive. But I have done so, not with the intention of providing an exhaustive treatise but simply as a way of showing their important practical implications for the Church’s mission tasks today. All of them help give shape to profile a definite style of evangelization which I ask invite you to adopt in every activity which you that is undertaken. In this way, we can take up welcome [alternatively, “take to heart], amid our daily efforts, the biblical exhortation of God’s Word: “Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say: Rejoice” (Phil 4:4).


19. Evangelization takes place is in obedience to the missionary mandate of Jesus: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you” (Mt 28:19-20). In these verses we see how the risen Christ sent his followers to preach the Gospel in every time and every place, so that faith in him might spread [this is an inexact rendering, the original means “diffused, broadcast” but that’s not a very clear word choice, so I left it alone] to every corner of the earth.


20. The word of God constantly shows us how God challenges those who believe in him permanently has as a feature the dynamism “to go forth” which God desires to foster in [all] believers. Abraham received accepted the call to set out for a new land (cf. Gen 12:1-3). Moses heard God’s call: “Go, I send you” (Ex 3:10) and led the people towards the promised land (cf. Ex 3:17). To Jeremiah, God says: “To all whom I send you, you shall go” (Jer 1:7). In our day Jesus’ command to “go and make disciples” echoes in the changing Today in this [command] of Jesus to “go [forth]” are present the [various] scenarios and ever new challenges to the Church’s evangelizing mission of evangelization, and all of us are called to take part in this new missionary “going forth.” Each Christian and every community must discern the which path that the Lord points out asks [of each], but all of us are asked to obey his are invited to accept the call to go forth from our own comfort zone in order and dare to reach all the peripheries in need of the light of the Gospel.

21. The Gospel joy which enlivens the community of disciples is a missionary joy. The seventy-two disciples felt experienced it as they returned from their mission (cf. Lk 10:17) filled with joy. Jesus felt lived it when he rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and praised the Father for revealing himself to because His revelation reaches the poor and the little ones (cf. Lk 10:21). It was felt by the first converts who marvelled to hear heard the apostles preaching “in the native language of each” and were filled with admiration (Acts 2:6) on the day of at Pentecost. This joy is a sign that the Gospel has been proclaimed and is bearing fruit. Yet the drive to go forth and give always, the dynamic of going [literally, “exodus”] and giving, to go out from ourselves, to keep pressing forward in our walking and sowing of the good seed, remains ever present is always anew. The Lord says: “Let us go on to the next towns that I may preach there also, for that is why I came out.” (Mk 1:38) Once the seed has been sown in one place, Jesus does not stay behind to better explain things or to perform more signs there; the Spirit moves him to go forth to other towns.

22. God’s word is unpredictable in its power has a potential we cannot predict. The Gospel speaks of a seed which, once sown, grows by itself, even as the farmer sleeps (Mk 4:26-29). The Church has to accept this unruly freedom ungraspable liberty of the word, which is efficient in its own way accomplishes what it wills and in ways that surpass our calculations and breaks our ways of thinking.

23. The Church’s closeness intimacy to Jesus is part of a common journey an itinerant intimacy; “communion and mission are profoundly interconnected.” In fidelity to the example Faithful to the model of the Master, it is vitally important for the Church today to go forth and preach the Gospel to all: to all places, on all occasions, without hesitation delay, reluctance squeamishness [literally, “revulsion”] or fear. The joy of the Gospel is for all people: no one can be excluded it cannot exclude anyone. That is what the angel proclaimed to the shepherds in Bethlehem: “Be not afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of a great joy which will come to all the people (Lk 2:10). The Book of Revelation speaks of “an eternal Gospel to proclaim to those who dwell on earth, to every nation and tongue and tribe and people (Rev 14:6).”

Taking the first step, being involved and supportive, bearing fruit and rejoicing

24. The “outgoing” Church which “goes forth” is a community of missionary disciples who take the first step initiative, who are involved accompany [each other] and supportive, who bear fruit and rejoice. [At this point the Holy Father asks forgiveness for using the neologism “Primerear” which is best rendered in English as the verb “firsting” and roughly means to take initiative boldly.] An evangelizing community knows has experienced that the Lord has taken the initiative, he has loved us first (cf. 1 Jn 4:19), and therefore we it [i.e. the evangelizing community] can knows how to move forward, boldly fearlessly takes the initiative, goes out to others, encounter [the Lord], seeks those who have fallen away are distanced, stands at the crossroads and to welcome the outcast excluded. [Such a community] has lives an endless desire to show offer mercy, the fruit of its own experience of having experienced the power of the Father’s infinite mercy and its diffusive power. Let us try a little harder to take the first step and to become involved dare more to be “firsting!” As a consequence the Church knows how to become involved. Jesus washed the feet of his disciples. The Lord gets involved and he involves his own, as he kneels before others to wash their feet. He tells his disciples: “You will be blessed if you do this” (Jn 13:17). An evangelizing community gets involved [literally, “into”] by word and deed in people’s daily lives by works and gestures; it bridges shortens distances, it is willing to abase lowers itself into humiliation if necessary, and it embraces human life, touching the suffering flesh of Christ in others. Evangelizers thus take on the “smell of the sheep” and the sheep are willing to hear their voice. An Further, the evangelizing community is also supportive, standing by disposes itself to be [an] accompanying [community]. Accompanying humanity in all its undertakings [literally, “processes”] people at every step of the way, no matter how difficult or lengthy this hard or prolonged these may prove to be. It is familiar with patient expectation knows long waits and apostolic endurance. Evangelization consists mostly has much in the way of patience and disregard for constraints of time avoids treading on limits. Faithful to the Lord’s gift, it also bears fruit. An evangelizing community knows to be fruitful. It is always concerned with fruit, because the Lord wants her to be fruitful. It cares for the grain and does not grow impatient at is not perturbed by the weeds. The sower, when he sees weeds sprouting among the grain does not grumble or overreact react in an alarmist fashion. He or she finds a way to let the word take flesh in a particular situation and bear fruits of new life, however imperfect or incomplete these may appear. The disciple is ready to put his or her whole life on the line [literally, “in play”], even unto accepting martyrdom, in bearing witness to Jesus Christ, yet the goal but its dream is not to make be filled with enemies but to see God’s word accepted welcomed and its capacity for manifest its powers of liberation and renewal revealed. Finally an evangelizing community is filled with joy; it knows how to rejoice always. It celebrates and rejoices at every small victory, every step forward in the work of evangelization. Evangelization with joy becomes beauty in the liturgy, as part of central to our daily concern to spread goodness extend [to others] that which is good. The Church evangelizes and is herself evangelized through the beauty of the liturgy, which is both a celebration of the task activities of evangelization and the source of her a renewed impetus to self-giving.


25. I am aware that nowadays not ignoring that today documents do not arouse awaken the same interest as in the past other [previous] times [literally, “epochs”] and that they are quickly forgotten. Nevertheless, I want to emphasize that what I am trying will try to express here has a programmatic significance sense and important consequences. I hope that all communities will make certain to devote the necessary effort to advancing along the path of a pastoral and missionary conversion which cannot leave things as they presently are. “Mere Simple administration” can is no longer be enough of use. Throughout the world, let us constitute ourselves to be “permanently in a state of mission.”

26. Paul VI invited [us] to deepen amplify the call to renewal and to make it clear that renewal does not only concern isolated individuals but the entire Church. Let us return to a remember this memorable text which continues to challenge us has lost none of its power. “The Church must look with penetrating eyes deeply within herself own conscience, ponder the mystery of her own being as is properthis vivid and lively self-awareness from [such] a striving and illuminated conscience inevitably leads to a comparison between bursts forth the desire to compare the ideal image of the Church as Christ envisaged her and loved her as his holy and spotless bride (cf. Eph 5:27), and the actual image which the Church presents to the world today... this is the source of the Church’s heroic [what] blossoms is a generous and almost impatient struggle longing for renewal: the struggle to correct [literally, “make amends for”] those flaws introduced by her members which her own self-examination conscience, mirroring her exemplar, Christ, points out to her and condemns.”

The Second Vatican Council presented ecclesial conversion as openness an opening to a constant self-renewal permanent self-reform born of in fidelity to Jesus Christ: “Every renewal of the Church essentially consists in an increase of fidelity to her own calling vocation… Christ summons the pilgrim Church as she goes her pilgrim way… to that continual reformation of to perpetual reform, which she will always has need, in so far as she is a human, earthly institution here on earth.”

There are ecclesial structures which can hamper moderate [as in “dampen”] efforts at evangelization dynamic evangelism, yet even good structures are only helpful useful when there is a life constantly driving, sustaining and assessing them. Without new life and an authentic evangelical spirit, without the Church’s “fidelity to her own calling vocation,” any new structure will soon prove ineffective be corrupted.

An ecclesial renewal which cannot be deferred

27. I dream of a “missionary option”, that is, a missionary impulse capable of transforming everything, so that the Church’s customs, ways of doing things, times and schedules, language and structures can be suitably channeled converted into a suitable channel for the evangelization of today’s world rather than for her self-preservation. The renewal of structures demanded by pastoral conversion can only be understood in this light sense: as part of an effort to make them making sure they are more mission-oriented, to make ordinary pastoral activity on every level more inclusive expansive and open, to inspire in place pastoral workers agents in a constant desire attitude to go forth and in this way to [create a climate more favorable to eliciting a positive response from all those whom Jesus summons to friendship with him. As John Paul II once said to the Bishops of Oceania: “All renewal within the bosom of the Church must have mission as its goal if it is not to fall prey to a kind of ecclesial introversion.”

28. The parish is not an outdated expired institution; precisely because it possesses great flexibility malleability [literally, “plasticity”], it can assume quite different contours very diverse forms depending on the openness which require docility and missionary creativity of the pastor and the community. While certainly not the only institution which evangelizes, if it proves capable of self-renewal and constant adaptivity continual reform and adaptation, it will continues to be “the Church living in the midst of the homes of her sons and daughters.” This presumes that it really is in contact with the homes and the lives of its people, and does not become a useless structure out of touch with isolated from the people or a self-absorbed cluster made up of a chosen few group of select people staring at themselves. The parish is the presence of the Church in a given territory, an environment for hearing God’s word, for growth in the Christian life, for dialogue, proclamation, charitable outreach generous outreach, worship adoration and celebration. In all Throughout its activities the parish encourages and trains gives formation to its members to be evangelizers. It is a community of communities, a sanctuary where the thirsty come to drink in the midst of that they may continue their journey, and a centre of constant missionary outreach. We must admit, though, that the call to review and renew our parishes has not yet sufficed to bring them brought forth sufficient fruit, that they be nearer to people, to make them environments of living communion and participation, and to make them completely mission-oriented.

29. Other Church ecclesial institutions, basic communities and small communities, movements, and forms of association are a source of enrichment for riches of the Church, raised up by the Spirit for evangelizing different areas in all environments and sectors. Frequently they bring a new evangelizing fervour and a new capacity for dialogue with the world whereby the Church is renewed. But it will prove beneficial for them not to lose contact with the rich reality of the local parish and to participate readily with pleasure in the overall pastoral activity of the that particular Church. This kind of integration will prevent them from concentrating taking only one part of the Gospel or the Church, or becoming nomads without roots.

30. Each particular Church, as a portion of the Catholic Church under the leadership of its bishop, is likewise called to missionary conversion. It is the primary subject of evangelization, since it is the concrete manifestation of the one Church in one specific place, and in it “the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church of Christ is truly present and operative and works [literally, “operates”].” It is the Church incarnate in a certain place, equipped provisioned with all the means of salvation bestowed by Christ, but with local facial features. Its joy in communicating Jesus Christ is expressed both by a concern to preach him to areas in greater need and in constantly going forth to the outskirts peripheries of its own territory or towards new sociocultural settings. Wherever It makes sure to be where the need for the light and the life of the Risen Christ is greatest, it will want to be there. To make this missionary impulse ever more focused intense, generous and fruitful, I encourage each particular Church to undertake a resolute process of discernment, purification and reform.

31. The bishop must always foster this missionary communion in his diocesan Church, following the ideal of the first Christian communities, in which the believers were of one heart and one soul (cf. Acts 4:32). To do so, he will sometimes go before his people, pointing the way and keeping safeguarding their hope vibrant. At other times, he will simply be in their midst with his unassuming simplicity and merciful presence. At yet other times, he will have to walk after the people them, helping those who lag behind and – above all – allowing because the flock has the sense of smell to strike out on find new paths. In his mission of fostering a dynamic, open and missionary communion, he will have to encourage and develop the make sure the means of participation proposed in the Code of Canon Law are mature, and as well as other forms of pastoral dialogue, out of a desire to listen to everyone and not simply to those who would tell him what he would like to hear [literally “caress his ears”]. Yet the principal aim of these participatory processes should not be ecclesiastical organization but rather the missionary aspiration dream of reaching everyone all.

32. Since I am called to put into practice live out what I ask of others, I too must think about a conversion of the papacy. It is my duty, as the Bishop of Rome, to be open to suggestions which can help are oriented to make the exercise of my ministry more faithful to the meaning which Jesus Christ wished to give it and to the present needs of evangelization. Pope John Paul II asked for help in finding “a way of exercising the primacy which, while in no way renouncing what is essential to its mission, is nonetheless open to a new situation.” We have made advanced little progress in this regard. The papacy and the central structures of the universal Church also need to hear the call to pastoral conversion. The Second Vatican Council stated that, like analogous to the ancient patriarchal Churches, episcopal conferences are in a position “to contribute develop works in many and fruitful ways to the concrete realization of that the collegial spirit may find a concrete application.” Yet this desire has not been fully realized, since a juridical status of episcopal conferences which would see them as subjects of specific attributions, including genuine doctrinal authority, has not yet been made sufficiently explicit elaborated. Excessive centralization, rather than proving helpful, complicates the Church’s life and her missionary outreach.

33. Pastoral ministry in a missionary key seeks to abandon the complacent comfortable attitude that says: “We have It has always been done it this way.” I invite everyone to be bold and creative in this task of rethinking the goals objectives, structures, style and methods of evangelization in their respective communities. A proposal of goals without an adequate communal search for the means of achieving them will inevitably prove illusory is condemned to become a mere fantasy. I encourage everyone to apply the guidelines found in this document generously and courageously with generosity and courage, without inhibitions or fear. The important thing is to not walk alone, but to rely on each other as brothers and sisters brethren, and especially under the leadership of the bishops, in a wise and realistic pastoral discernment.


34. If we attempt to put all things in a missionary key, this will also affect the way we communicate the message. In today’s world of instant communication and occasionally selectively biased media coverage, the message we preach runs a greater risk than ever of being distorted mutilated or reduced to some of its secondary aspects. In this way certain issues which are part of the Church’s moral teaching are taken out of the context which gives them their [true/proper] meaning. The biggest problem is when the message we preach then seems identified with those secondary aspects which, important as they are, do not in and of themselves convey the heart of Christ’s message. We need It is in our best interest to be realistic and not assume take it as a given that our audience the one with whom we converse [literally, “interlocutor”] fully understands the full background to what we are saying, or is capable of relating can connect what we say to the very heart essential core of the Gospel which gives it meaning sense, beauty and attractiveness.

35. Pastoral ministry in a missionary style is not obsessed with the disjointed an inarticulate transmission of a multitude of doctrines to be insistently imposed by force of insistence. When we adopt a pastoral goal and a missionary style which would actually reach everyone without exception or exclusion, the message has to concentrate on the essentials what is essential, on what is most beautiful, most grand, most appealing attractive and at the same time most necessary. The message is simplified, while losing none of its depth and truth, and thus becomes all the more forceful and convincing radiant.

36. All revealed truths derive from the same divine source and are to be believed with the same faith, yet some of them are more important for giving direct expression to because they express most directly [what is at] the heart of the Gospel. In this basic fundamental core, what shines forth is the beauty of the saving love of God made manifest in Jesus Christ who died and rose from the dead [Note: the emphasis was missing from the official translation]. In this sense, the Second Vatican Council explained, “in Catholic doctrine there exists an order or a ‘hierarchy’ of truths, since they vary in their relation to the foundation of the Christian faith.” This holds true as much for the dogmas of faith as for the whole corpus of the Church’s teaching, including her moral teaching.

37. Saint Thomas Aquinas taught that the Church’s moral teaching has its own “hierarchy”, in the virtues and in the acts which proceed from them. What counts above all else is “faith working through love” (Gal 5:6). Works of love directed to one’s neighbour are the most perfect external manifestation of the interior grace of the Spirit: “The foundation of the New Law is in the grace of the Holy Spirit, who is manifested in the faith which works through love.” Thomas He thus explains that, as far as external works are concerned, mercy is the greatest of all the virtues: “In itself mercy is the greatest of the virtues, since all the others revolve around it and, more than this, it makes up for supplement their deficiencies. This is particular to the superior virtue, and as such it is proper to God to have mercy, through which his omnipotence is manifested to the greatest degree.”

38. It is important to draw out the pastoral consequences of the Council’s teaching, which reflects an ancient conviction of the Church. First, it needs to be said that in preaching the Gospel a fitting sense of proportion has to be maintained. This would be seen is evidenced in the frequency with which certain themes are brought up mentioned and in the emphasis given to them in preaching. For example, if in the course of the liturgical year a parish priest speaks about temperance ten times but only mentions charity or justice two or three times, an imbalance results, and precisely those virtues which ought to be most present in preaching and catechesis are overlooked overshadowed. The same thing happens when we speak more about law than about grace, more about the Church than about Jesus Christ, more about the Pope than about God’s word.

39. Just as the organic unity existing among the virtues means that no one prevents the exclusion of any of them can be excluded from the Christian ideal, so no truth may be is denied. The integrity of the Gospel message must not be deformed mutilated. What is more, each truth is better understood when related to the harmonious totality of the Christian message; in this context all of the truths are important and illuminate one another. When preaching is faithful to the Gospel, the centrality of certain truths is evident manifested with clarity and it becomes clear that Christian morality is not a form ethic of stoicism, or self-denial of asceticism, or it’s not a merely a practical philosophy or a catalogue of sins and faults errors. Before all else, the Gospel invites us to respond to the God of love who saves us, to see God recognize Him in others and to go forth from ourselves to seek the good of others all. Under no circumstance can this invitation be obscured overshadowed! All of the virtues are at the service of this response of love. If this invitation does not radiate forcefully and attractively, the edifice of the Church’s moral teaching risks runs the risk of becoming a house of cards, and this is our greatest there lies our worst risk. It would mean that it is not the Gospel which is being preached, but certain doctrinal or moral points nuances based on specific ideological options. The message will run the risk of losing its freshness and will cease to have “the fragrance of the Gospel.”


40. The Church is herself which is a missionary disciple; she needs to grow in her interpretation of the revealed word and in her understanding comprehension of truth. It is the task of exegetes and theologians to help helps “the judgment of the Church to mature.” The In other ways the other sciences also help to accomplish do this, each in its own way. With reference Referring to the social sciences, for example, John Paul II said that the Church values their research contribution, which helps her “to derive concrete indications helpful for her magisterial mission.” Within the bosom of the Church are countless innumerable issues are being studied investigated and reflected upon with great freedom ample liberty. Differing currents trains of thought in philosophy, theology and pastoral practice, if open to being reconciled by the Spirit in respect and love, can enable also make the Church to grow, since all of them help to express more clearly explicitly the immense riches of God’s the word. For those who long for a monolithic body of doctrine guarded by all and leaving no room for nuance without hues [i.e. “gradations’], this might appear as undesirable and leading to confusion an imperfect dispersion. But in fact such variety serves to bring out and develop different facets diverse aspects of the inexhaustible riches of the Gospel.


53. Just as the commandment “Thou shalt not kill” sets a clear limit in order to safeguard the value of human life, today we also have to say “thou shalt not” no to an economy of exclusion and inequality. Such an economy kills. How can it be that it is not a news item when an elderly homeless person dies of exposure [literally, "from the cold" in the sense of outdoor temperature, not from the common cold], but it is news when the stock market loses two points? This is a case of exclusion. Can we continue to stand by when It should no longer be tolerable for food is to be thrown away while people are starving? This is a case of inequality. Today everything comes under the laws of to a game of competition and the survival of the fittest “might makes right” [literally, “the law of the strong”], where the powerful strong feed upon the powerless weak. As a consequence of this situation, great masses of people find themselves excluded and marginalized: without work, without possibilities prospects [literally, “without horizons”], without any means of escape way out [of their circumstances].

Human beings are themselves considered consumer goods to which can be used and then discarded. We have created started a “disposable” culture which is now spreading being promoted. It is no longer simply about the phenomenon of exploitation and oppression, but something new. Exclusion ultimately has to do with what it means to be a part of With exclusion the belongingness to society is affected at its roots in which we live; those excluded are no longer society’s underside or its fringes or its disenfranchised one is no longer at the bottom, at the periphery or powerlessthey are no longer even a part of it rather, one is outside. The excluded are not the “exploited” but the outcast discards, the “leftovers.”

54. In this context, some people continue to defend trickle-down "spillover" theories which assume suppose that all economic growth, encouraged by a free market, for which a free market is [most] favorable, will inevitably succeed in bringing about greater justice and inclusiveness by itself brings about greater equity and social inclusion in the world. This opinion, which has never been confirmed by the facts, expresses a crude and naïve trust in the goodness of those wielding confidence in the generosity of those [people] who wield economic power and in the sacralized workings mechanisms of that ruling the prevailing economic system. Meanwhile, the excluded are still waiting. To sustain a lifestyle which excludes others, or to sustain enthusiasm for that selfish egotistical ideal, a globalization of indifference has developed. Almost without warning [i.e. practically] being aware of it, we end up being incapable of feeling compassion at the outcry of the poor for others, [of] weeping for other people’s pain at the anguish of others, and feeling a need to help them and [we end up] being disinterested in helping care for them, as though all this were someone else’s an alien responsibility and not our own which does not concern us. The culture of prosperity deadens wellbeing anesthetizes us; we are thrilled if the market offers us something new to purchase we lose our composure [literally, "lose our calm"] if the market offers something we have not yet purchased; and in the meantime all those lives stunted truncated for lack of opportunity [economic] possibilities seem a mere spectacle; they fail to move us which in no way alters us.

No to the new idolatry of money

55. One cause of the causes of this situation is found in our the relationship we have established with money, since we calmly passively accept its dominion predominance over ourselves and our societies [Kindly note the plural, “societies” it is key to understanding he is talking about human values and not specific, individual systems.] The current financial crisis we are traversing can make us overlook has made us forget the fact that it originated in a profound human anthropological crisis: the denial of the primacy of the human person! We have created new idols. The worship of the ancient golden calf (cf. Ex 32:1-35) has returned in found a new and ruthless guise version in the idolatry fetishism of money and the dictatorship of an impersonal economy lacking a [human] face and a truly human purpose. The worldwide crisis affecting finance and the economy lays bare their imbalances and, above all, their lack of real concern for human beings; man is reduced to one of his needs alone: consumption.

56. While the earnings of a minority few are growing exponentially, so too is the gap separating those of the majority from lag behind the prosperity enjoyed by those happy few. This imbalance is the result of stems from ideologies which defend the absolute [Emphasis mine.] autonomy of the marketplace and financial speculation [Emphasis mine.]. Consequently From there, they reject the right of states, charged with vigilance entrusted to watch for the common good, to exercise any [Emphasis mine.] form of control. A new tyranny is thus born, invisible and often sometimes virtual, which unilaterally and relentlessly imposes its own laws and rules. Debt and the accumulation of interest also make it difficult for countries to realize the potential of their own economies and keep citizens from enjoying their real purchasing power. [Emphasis mine.] To all this we can add widespread corruption and self-serving egotistical tax evasion, which have taken on worldwide dimensions. The thirst zeal for power and possessions knows no limits. In this system, which tends to devour everything which stands in the way of in order to yield increased profits, whatever is fragile, like the environment, is defenseless before the interests of a deified market, which become the only absolute rule.

No to a financial system which rules governs rather than serves

57. Behind this attitude lurks a rejection of ethics and a rejection of God. Ethics has come to be viewed with a certain scornful derision. It is seen as counterproductive, too human, because it makes money and power relative. It is felt to be a threat, since it condemns the manipulation and debasement of the person. In effect, ethics leads to a God who calls for a committed response which is outside of the beyond any categories of the marketplace. When these latter For these, if [Emphasis mine.] they are absolutized, God can only be seen as uncontrollable, unmanageable, even dangerous, since he calls human beings to their full realization and to freedom from all forms of enslavement. [This refers to man being a slave of behaving a certain way within an economic context.] Ethics – a non-ideological ethics [Emphasis mine.] – would make it possible to bring about balance and a more humane social order. With this in mind, I encourage financial experts and political leaders to ponder the words of one of the sages of antiquity: “Not to share one’s wealth with the poor is to steal from them and to take away their livelihood. It is not our own goods which we hold, but theirs.”

58. A financial reform open to such ethical considerations that does not ignore ethics would require a vigorous an energetic change of approach attitude on the part of political leaders. I urge them to face this challenge with determination and an eye to the future, while not ignoring, of course, the specifics of each case [Emphasis mine.]. Money must serve, not rule govern! The Pope loves everyone, rich and poor alike, but he is obliged in the name of Christ to remind all that the rich must help, respect and promote champion the poor. I exhort you to generous solidarity and a return of economics and finance to an ethical approach which favours human beings.


184. This is not the time or the place to examine in detail develop here the many grave social questions affecting today’s world, some of which I have dealt with commented upon in the second chapter. This Exhortation is not a social document, and for reflection on those different diverse themes we have a most very suitable tool instrument in the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, whose use and study I heartily recommend. Furthermore, neither the Pope nor the Church have a monopoly on the interpretation of social realities reality or the proposal of solutions to contemporary problems. Here I can repeat the insightful lucid observation of Pope Paul VI: “In the face of such widely varying situations, it is difficult for us to utter a unified message pronounce the last [literally, “only”] word and to put forward as it is to propose a solution which has universal validity. This is not our ambition purpose, nor is it our mission. It is up to incumbent upon the Christian communities to analyze with objectivity the situation which is proper to their own country.”

185. In what follows I intend to Following I will endeavor to concentrate on two great issues which strike seem to me as fundamental at this time moment in history. I will treat them more fully because develop them in sufficient breadth because I believe that consider they will shape the future of humanity. These issues are first, firstly the inclusion of the poor in society, and second then, peace and social dialogue.


186. Our From faith in Christ, who became poor, and was always close to the poor and the outcast, is the basis of springs our concern for the integral development of society’s most neglected abandoned members.

In union with United to God, we hear a plea clamor

187. Each individual Christian and every each community is are called to be an instrument of God for the liberation and promotion championing of the poor, and for enabling them to be fully a part of integrated into society. This demands that we be docile and attentive to the cry [literally, “clamor”] of the poor and to come to their aid. A mere glance at Delving through the Scriptures is enough sufficient to make us see how our gracious good Father wants to hear the cry of the poor: “I have observed the misery of my people who are in Egypt; I have heard their cry on account of their taskmasters. Indeed, I know their sufferings, and I have come down to deliver them… so I will send you…” (Ex 3:7-8, 10). We also see how he is concerned for attentive to their needs: “When the Israelites cried out to the Lord, the Lord raised up for them a deliverer” (Jg 3:15). If we turn a deaf ear to this plea, who when we are God’s means of instruments for hearing the poor, turn deaf ears to this plea, we oppose we stand outside the Father’s will and his plan undertaking; that poor person “might cry to the Lord against you, and you would incur guilt” (Dt 15:9). A lack of Lacking in solidarity towards his or her with his needs will directly affect our relationship with God: “For if in bitterness of soul he calls down a curse upon you, his Creator will hear his prayer” (Sir 4:6). The old question always returns: “How does God’s love abide in anyone who has the world’s goods, and sees a brother or sister in need and yet refuses help?” (1 Jn 3:17). Let us recall also how bluntly inarguably the apostle Saint James speaks of the cry of the oppressed: “The wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you kept back by fraud, cry out, and the cries of the harvesters have reached the ears of the Lord of hosts” (5:4).

188. The Church has realized that recognizes the need to heed this plea is itself born of springs from the liberating action of grace within each of us, and thus it is not a question of a mission reserved only to a few: “The Church, guided by the Gospel of mercy and by love for mankind, hears the cry for justice and intends to respond to it with all her might.”
In this context Within this framework we can understand Jesus’ command request to his disciples: “You yourselves give them something to eat!” (Mk 6:37): it means both working to eliminate the structural causes of poverty and to promote the integral development of the poor, as well as small daily and simple, everyday acts of solidarity in meeting the real needs which we encounter toward specific [situations of] misery we [may] encounter. The word “solidarity” is a little rather worn out and at times poorly understood interpreted incorrectly [or, “badly”], but it refers to something is more than a few some sporadic acts of generosity. It presumes the creation of a new mindset which thinks in terms of community and the priority of the life of all over the appropriation acquisition [Note: “apropiacíon,” although it may sound like it, doesn’t mean “appropriation.” Rather it means to “gather” or “acquire.”] of goods by a few.

189. Solidarity is a spontaneous reaction by those who recognize that the social function of property and the universal destination of goods are realities which come before previous to [i.e. “antedate”] private property. The private ownership of goods is justified by the need to protect and increase them [Note: Emphasis mine.], so that they can better best serve the common good of all; for this reason, solidarity must be lived as the decision to restore to the poor what belongs corresponds to them. These convictions and habits of solidarity, when they are put into practice enfleshed, open the way to other structural transformations and make them possible. Changing structures without generating new convictions and attitudes will only ensure that those same structures will become, sooner or later, corrupt, oppressive burdensome [Literally, “weighty”] and ineffectual ineffective.

190. Sometimes it is a matter of hearing the cry of entire peoples, the poorest peoples of the earth, since “peace is founded not only on respect for human the rights of man, but also on respect for the rights of peoples.” Sadly, even human rights can be used as a justification for an inordinate exacerbated defense of individual rights or the rights of the richer peoples. With due respect for Fully respecting the autonomy independence and culture of every nation, we must never forget that always remember the planet belongs to is all mankind’s and is meant for all mankind; only the mere fact that some people are born in places with fewer resources or less development does not justify the fact that they are their living with less dignity. It must be reiterated repeated that “the more fortunate should renounce [voluntarily] yield some of their rights so as to place their goods more generously at the service of others.” To speak properly adequately [i.e. “correctly”] of our own rights, we need to broaden our perspective views and to hear the open our ears to the plea of other peoples and other regions than those of our own country. We need to grow in a solidarity which “would allow all peoples to become themselves the artisans crafters of their own destiny”,since “every person is called to self-fulfilment development.”


The economy and the distribution [In Spanish, the word “distribution” is to be read with a certain measure of passivity, akin to the way we use it in English in phrases such as “frequency distribution.”] of income

202. The need to resolve the structural causes of poverty cannot be delayed wait, not only for the pragmatic reason of its urgency for the good order demands of obtaining results for the proper ordering of society, but because society it needs to be cured of a sickness which is weakening and frustrating it making it unworthy, and which can only lead bring it to new crises. Welfare projects Plans of [government] assistance, which meet certain urgent needs [seek to] [Note: it is unclear from the original if what is meant should or should not include the “seek to” noted above, so I have bracketed it] address certain urgent situations [literally, “urgencies”], should be considered merely be thought of only as temporary responses passing answers. As long as the problems of the poor are not radically [In Spanish “radically” is understood as being closer to our “fundamentally.”] resolved by rejecting renouncing the absolute autonomy of markets and of financial speculation and by attacking the structural causes of inequality, no solution will be found for the world’s problems or, for that matter, definitely, no solution will be found to any problems. Inequality is the root of social ills.

203. The dignity of each human person and the pursuit of the common good [The phrase “the common good” in Spanish, I believe, this should be read as “the good of all”] are concerns matters which ought to shape all economic policies policy [It’s unclear is this is to be read as “political economy” or “economic policies” in the plural, but to my ear, the singular (policy) makes the most sense.]. At times, however, they these [i.e. “human dignity” and “good of all”] seem to be a mere addendum imported from without only appendices added from [the] outside in order to fill out complete [i.e. “wrap up”] a political discourse lacking in speech without any perspectives or plans for true and integral development. How many words prove have become irksome to this system! [The word “system” is more accurately understood as “arrangement” here.] It is irksome when the question to speak of ethics is raised, when irksome to speak of global solidarity is invoked, irksome to speak of the distribution [See previous note on the word “distribution”] of goods is mentioned, when reference is made to irksome to speak of protecting the sources of labour work [or, possibly, “employment”] and defending irksome to speak of the dignity of the powerless weak, irksome to speak of when allusion is made to a God who demands a commitment to justice. At other times it comes to pass these terms these issues are exploited by a rhetoric which cheapens them become the object of opportunist [rhetorical] exploitation [literally, “manhandling”] which dishonors them. Casual Comfortable indifference in the face of such questions matters empties our lives and our words of all meaning. Business is a vocation, and a noble vocation The vocation of entrepreneur is a noble charge, provided that those engaged in it see themselves challenged by a greater meaning in life it allows a broader understanding [literally, “sense”] of life; this will enable them [the entrepreneur] to truly to serve the common good of all by striving to increase the goods of this world and to make them more accessible to all by multiplying of, and increasing the access to, all the goods of this world.

204. We can no longer trust have confidence in the unseen forces and the invisible hand of the market. Growth in justice equity requires more than economic growth, while presupposing such growth even though such [economic growth] is as a given [to a growth in equity]: it requires decisions, programmes, mechanisms and processes specifically geared  oriented to a better distribution of income, to the creation of sources of employment and an integral promotion championing of the poor which goes beyond a simple mere welfare mentality. I am far from proposing an irresponsible populism, but the economy can no longer turn to remedies that are a new [in the sense of “different”] poison, such as attempting to increase profits like when seeking to increase returns by reducing the work force labor market and thereby adding to the ranks of the new excluded [persons].

205. I ask God to give us more increase the number of politicians capable of entering into an sincere and effective authentic dialogue aimed at that is geared to efficiently healing the deepest roots – and not simply the appearances – of the evils [could also be “wrongs”] in our world! Politics, though often so denigrated, remains a is a very lofty vocation and one of the highest precious forms of charity, inasmuch as it seeks the common good because it searches for the good of all.
We need to be convinced that charity “is the principle not only of micro-relationships (with friends, with family members or within small groups) but also of macro-relationships (social, economic and political ones).” I beg the Lord to grant us more politicians who are genuinely disturbed truly pained by [the state of society], the people, the lives of the poor! It is vital imperative that government leaders and financial leaders take heed lift their gaze and broaden their horizons perspectives, working to ensure that all citizens have dignified making sure there is worthwhile [possibly, “worthy”] work, education and healthcare for all citizens. Why not turn to And why not appeal to God and ask him to inspire their plans? I am firmly convinced that openness from an opening to the transcendent can bring about could come a new political and economic mindset which would help to break down the wall of separation overcome the dichotomy between the economy and the common social good of society.

206. Economy, as the very word indicates, should be the art of achieving a fitting an adequate management of our common home, which is the world as a whole. Each meaningful economic decision of gravity made in one part of the world has repercussions everywhere else; consequently for this [reason], no government can act without regard for shared outside the margins of common responsibility [This, to me, has its roots in the ruinous trade wars in Latin America]. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly becomes ever more difficult to find localized solutions for enormous global problems dilemmas which overwhelm saturate local politics with difficulties to resolve problems to solve. If we really want to achieve a healthy world economy, what is needed at this juncture of history historical moment is a more efficient way of interacting which, with due regard for without [adversely] impacting the sovereignty of each nation, ensures the economic well-being of all countries, not just of a few.

207. Any Church community within the Church, if it thinks it can comfortably to the degree it attempts to go its own tranquil way without creative concern creatively making sure of [the verb, “ocupar” in Spanish means more “take care of it” or “busying oneself” than “occupy”] and effective cooperation cooperating with efficiency in helping the poor to live with dignity and reaching out to everyone including all, will also risk breaking down also runs the risk of [self-] dissolution, however much it may talk about social issues or criticize governments. It will easily drift into a spiritual worldliness spiritually mundane [realm] camouflaged by religious practices, unproductive fruitless meetings and empty talk speeches.

208. If anyone feels offended by my words, I would respond say [to them] that I speak them with affection and with the best of intentions, quite apart far from any personal interest or political ideology. My words are not those of a foe an enemy or an opponent. I am interested only in helping those who are in thrall enslaved to an individualistic [In Spanish “individualism” has connotation closer to “self-absorption” than in English.], indifferent and self-centred egotistical mentality to be freed from those unworthy undignified chains and to attain a way of living and thinking which is more humane [It’s unclear from the context if “humane” or “human” is meant.], noble and fruitful, and which will bring dignity to their presence on this earth.


252. Our At this historical moment the relationship with the followers of Islam has taken takes on great importance, since they are now significantly particularly present in many traditionally Christian countries of Christian tradition, where they can freely celebrate [and] worship and become fully a part of live integrated to [that] society. We must never forget that they “profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, who will judge humanity on the last day.”
[198] The sacred writings of Islam have retained some Christian teachings; Jesus Christ and Mary receive are the object of profound veneration and it is admirable to see how Muslims both young and old, men and women of Islam, make time for daily prayer and faithfully take part in their religious services rites. Many At the same time, many of them also have a deep conviction that their life itself, in its entirety totality, is from God and for God. They also acknowledge the need to respond to God with an ethical commitment and with mercy towards those most in need.

253. In order to sustain dialogue with Islam, suitable training is essential for all involved adequate formation among the interlocutors [i.e. those authorized or supposed to have these discussions] is indispensable, not only so that they can be solidly and joyfully grounded rooted in their own identity, but so that they can also acknowledge [could also be “recognize”] the values of others, appreciate the concerns underlying their demands and shed bring to light on any shared beliefs. We Christians should embrace with affection and respect Muslim immigrants to from Islam[ic countries] who reach our countries in the same way that we hope and ask plead to be received and respected in countries of Islamic tradition. I ask beg and I humbly entreat those countries to grant Christians freedom to worship and to practice live their faith, in light of [in Spanish this is understood closer to our “keeping in mind”] the freedom which followers believers of Islam enjoy in Western countries! Faced with disconcerting episodes of violent fundamentalism which [gravely/seriously] disquiet us, our respect affection for the true [Note: This reads in a far more pointed manner in Spanish.] followers of Islam should lead us to avoid hateful generalizations, for authentic the true Islam and the proper an adequate [in the sense of “correct”] reading of the Koran are opposed to every form of all violence.